Caucasus State Biosphere Nature Reserve: detailed information
It is rare to find reserves thatwould extend their borders not only within the region or the edge, but also seized neighboring countries. The Caucasian state biosphere nature reserve is exactly this. Starting in the Krasnodar Territory, it goes to the Adygea, and then to the Karachay-Cherkess Republic.
History of the reserve
These lands have an interesting back story, whichpreceded the idea of one person to create here a closed territory for the preservation of an endangered species of bison. Today the Caucasian state natural biosphere reserve named after Shaposhnikov has an area of more than 280,000 hectares, and once there were grounds for royal hunting.
It all began in 1888, when the Grand Dukestook a part of the lands along the Great Caucasian Range for rent for hunting there for representatives of the royal family and their guests. Initially, 480 000 acres of forest were allocated for this amusement, but after 4 years interest to the grounds was lost due to the health of tenants.
When in 1906 the deadline began to come to an endlease of land, it was extended for 3 years, during which the forester from the territory owned by the troops of Kubansky, compiled and submitted an application to the Academy of Sciences with a proposal to organize a reserve here. The surname of this person then became known as the Caucasian state natural biosphere reserve to them. Shaposhnikov.
In the map attached to the request, the boundaries of the future protected zone, created solely for the purpose of preserving the Caucasian bison, were specified.
The division of land is a long-term business, and theThe Academy of Sciences commission was not in a hurry with the decision, so only in 1919 the necessary documents were signed, but this was not the beginning. The arrival of the Soviet government "pushed aside" the organization of the Caucasian State Biosphere Reserve for another five years. It was established and fixed within its borders only in May 1924. From this moment, his activity begins to protect the unique flora and fauna of the Greater Caucasus Range.
Location of the reserve
Caucasian state biosphere naturalthe reserve extends from the northern to the southern slopes of the Western Caucasus, but apart from this territory, it has separate "branches". For example, it was decided to include a grove with relict yew and boxwood. Today the Khosta part of the Caucasian state natural biosphere reserve of Sochi is located here. Its area is only 302 hectares, but the global value of the relic forest can not be overestimated.
The whole territory of the reserve, like its Khostinsky department and the national Sochi park, is under protection.
For convenience, this natural area was divided intoPlots that received their names at their location, for example, Western, East, Khostinsky and others. Behind each branch are assigned foresters, there are houses for their living and feeders for animals.
Today the Caucasian State Biosphere Reservea natural reserve is a real laboratory in the open air, where the best biologists, ecologists and zoologists of the country work. This is due not only to the fact that it became the property of UNESCO, but also a kind of territory to contain negative attitudes towards nature in the world, which affects all of humanity.
Flora of the protected area
These places can be called unique, sincesuch a quantity of plants, mosses, trees and shrubs in one territory is often not found, it's not for nothing that the Caucasian State Biosphere Nature Reserve (information from the organization's website) is the second largest and most significant in Europe.
In total, 3000 plant species grow here, including:
- Mushrooms more than seven hundred species.
- The Astro family is represented by 189 species.
- Trees belonging to deciduous trees, 142 species, coniferous - 7, evergreen deciduous - 16.
- As counted by local scientists, in the reserve, every fifth plant is either a relic or an endemic that grows exclusively in the Greater Caucasus Range.
- Here you can find ferns (40 species) in the same area with orchids (more than 30).
- In the well-known many yew-boxwood forest, there are trees that are more than 2000 years old. They also became the property of UNESCO.
If we consider FGBU "Caucasianstate natural biosphere reserve "territorially, it can be divided into a forest zone that occupies most of the area, and alpine and subalpine meadows on the slopes of the mountains.
Maybe someone will not be pleased with the information that inThe Caucasian reserve is inhabited by 10,000 species of insects, some of which do not favor tourists, but in fact these places are inhabited by unique and often rare animals. Among them:
- Mammals have about 90 species.
- Birds - more than 240, some of which nest in these forests.
- There are 15 species of reptiles, and 9 amphibians.
- Pisces is represented by 21 species, but local shells are rich in mollusks - more than a hundred.
Until now, scientists have not figured out how muchreserve of arachnids and invertebrates. But great love for foresters and admiration of tourists are large mammals - brown bears, deer, bison, chamois, West Caucasian tours and others.
To date, more than 70 animals living in the Caucasian biosphere reserve are listed in the Red Book.
Such a vast territory as the Caucasusreserve, it is very difficult to equip and clean. Here, volunteers come to the rescue of a forester and scientists. Only in 2016 almost five hundred people helped to clear the territory of fallen trees, mow the grass for hay, so that the animals had what it is in winter, clean in the famous rope training park and much more.
All works were conducted on a voluntary, free basis, and thanks to these people today the reserve looks more well-groomed and safe.
As gratitude, the administration of the reserve zone allowed volunteers to take walks to its most interesting corners and visit an aviary park, which contains wild animals.
Today this type of travel has become verypopular, but not all countries can provide ecotourists with safe and incredibly beautiful routes. In this the Caucasian reserve succeeded. The following excursions are offered here:
- Visit to the yew-boxwood relic forest.
- Dolmens in Gueripel.
- Visit the rope park.
- The famous "Devil's Gate" is a canyon in the channel of the Khosta River.
- Cages with wild animals.
- Accommodation in log cabins among the pristine nature in the eco-complex "Laura".
Every year new routes are being developed. This is an important part of the reserve's work, and the main thing here is not the money for excursions, but the educational work carried out by guides, explaining to tourists the significance of the Caucasus Reserve as a world natural property.