Cupid: river regime, characteristics and features
The type of water regime of the Amur River allows it to have many large tributaries. The main ones are Zeya, Burei, Sungari, Anyui, Ussuri and Amgun.
It is necessary to consider the following fact: for several years now there has been a debate about whether Zey is a tributary of the Amur or not. Thanks to the space photos, scientists were able to pinpoint that in some places Zeya is more full-water, and, moreover, it is much wider than the Amur River itself. The regime of the river in such cases is considered in detail, since such evidence is not sufficient to approve any of the versions.
Hydronym is closely related to the Tungus-Manchurianlanguages. In translation from the original, the name means "big river". In China, the water flow is called a "black river" or "river of the black dragon". According to an ancient legend, at the bottom lived a good dragon, who once overpowered the evil, constantly attacking the fishermen. The winner remained in these waters, between the Amur and Jewish regions. This is how the watercourse acquired such an interesting name.
Cupid (the regime of the river, one might say, in some wayis associated with its name) ends in the territory of Mongolia and Dauria. It flows through several Russians and one Chinese region. In the mountains there is the beginning of the main tributaries.
The Mongols are used to calling the Amur a "black broad river". Manchus - "black water."
The Amur basin is located in the east of Asia. The river is simultaneously located in four zones: forest, steppe, forest-steppe and semi-desert. Precipitation is not uncommon here, their number varies from 300 millimeters to 750 throughout the entire water area.
The source of the river is at the junction of Shilka andArguny. The total length of the watercourse is 2824 km. Now there are disputes about what kind of sea the Amur estuary belongs to. TSB claims to be Japanese, and the International Hydrographic Organization says it's to Okhotsk.
Amur (the regime of the river is quite varied throughout theits length) is located within Russia, the People's Republic of China and Mongolia. In the Russian Federation, the water flow is divided into the Siberian and Far Eastern parts. In the same territorial zone, it is conventionally divided into upper, middle and lower streams.
Hydrology of the river
Among other rivers of the Russian Federation, the Amur is in fourth place. In the world - the tenth. The water flow varies from 9 to 11 thousand meters3.
The valley of the water flow is divided into three sections: the middle, lower and upper Amur. The regime of the river on each of them is significantly different. For example, the speed of the current varies from 4 km / h to 5.5 km / h.
The main feature of Cupid is thatThe water level in it due to monsoon rains (80% of the annual runoff) rises to critical levels. In the middle and upper parts, the fluctuations are 12 m, at the bottom - 8 m. During constant rains or heavy downpours spills last up to two months and reach a width of 20 km. Thanks to the construction of the hydroelectric power station, on some tributaries of the river, fluctuations significantly decreased, floods became a rarity.
The water regime of the Amur River allows it to be dense"Populated". Here there are almost 140 species and subspecies of fish. About 40 are of commercial importance among them. Chinese representatives of ichthyofauna (white cupid, carp, aukha, and verhglyad) and Indian (rotan, snakehead) are often in the water flow. Kaluga, growing in these waters, reaches almost 5 m in length. Amur and Sakhalin sturgeons also often please fishermen. In addition to these fish species, there are 9 different representatives of salmonids. The endemics of the basin are kaluga, aukha, whitefish, snakehead, and others.
Cupid takes first place among allFar Eastern rivers for water supply. The high waters on the river are poorly marked, the floods are quite high. As a rule, there are a lot of them in the summer, but this fact provokes spills. This is the water regime of the Amur River, and its dependence on the climate is quite obvious. The more precipitation will occur, the greater the likelihood of flooding. Almost the whole area of the river is located in the area of the monsoon climatic belt (or more precisely, in its northern version). This explains the fact that in summer and winter cold winds prevail here. The place of the connection of Shilki and Argun, that is the source of the river, is most often influenced by the western masses.
The annual runoff is highly dependent on the water regime. For example, the upper current has relatively high indices, while the lower and middle currents have a lower water content. According to the type of runoff, the Cupid is divided into 4 parts: with small, moderate, low and high levels. Almost all of them have the same nature of the current, the difference is only in nutrition and climate. Basically the river feeds on rain (storm water). Snowmaking is important only in cases when there is a sufficient amount of precipitation in winter.
Due to favorable characteristics, the riverwidely used in the economic sphere: fishing, hydropower, rafting, recreation. The tributaries of the Amur have the same water regime as the river itself. The differences between them are insignificant.
What is the regime of the Amur River: freeze or not this pond? The answer to this question can be answered in the affirmative. Because of the low temperature (it reaches -40 degrees in the north and -15 in the south), most of the water flow is covered with ice. This cover begins to descend after approximately 8 months of glaciation.
There is practically no snow in the source of the Cupid, and even ifit falls out, then the height of the cover does not exceed 10 cm. The amount of total precipitation per year increases, if you move from the western part to the eastern one. In the lower course of the river, snow cover is much larger, their height is almost 50 cm, sometimes this figure grows.