Expenses for production of products in the electric power industry
Today, one of the most important for any economyis the problem of energy supply. More than half of the world's countries consume energy resources imported. This makes the economies of countries energy dependent. In addition, this explains the structure of costs for production. Rising prices for energy resources require significant costs for their acquisition and exacerbate the economic situation as a whole. For countries that do not have the necessary amount of energy resources, and the possibilities of attracting their renewal are extremely limited, the most important vector of the economic movement is the increase in energy efficiency. Energy efficiency, lower costs for the production of electric power products, become an important factor in economic growth.
There were two strategic directions for itsincrease. The first is to reduce the cost of production by improving the efficiency of the consumption of resources at TPPs and in boilers for the production of electrical energy. The second is an increase in the energy efficiency of all industry and agriculture.
To assess what is the cost of productionproducts in the electric power industry, what is the efficiency of energy production in thermal power plants, such an indicator as the calculated specific consumption of fuel used per unit of energy released. This indicator is used to compare the economy and efficiency of various power plants. For example, for thermal stations with subcritical steam parameters, the specific flow rate is 365 grams of conventional fuel / kWh, with supercritical parameters 320 grams of standard fuel / kWh, for modern combined-cycle stations 265 g of equivalent fuel / kWh. For electric networks, energy efficiency is determined by the amount of electricity losses in the networks, which is currently about 11% of the energy released into the grid and can be expressed as the efficiency of transmission and distribution of electricity. Similarly, the energy efficiency of heat networks is estimated, with losses of about 12%.
For the energy system as a whole, there is noany universal criterion, what should be the costs of production in the electric power industry, which energy efficiency indicator is used, characterizing the efficiency of the use of the supplied primary energy that this type of fuel contains. It seems that this can be used to measure the specific fuel consumption for all power plants, attributed to the energy released to consumers.
There is a direct relationship between growth ratesenergy intensity and energy consumption and GDP. It follows from this that the dynamics of changes in the energy intensity of the gross product is determined both by the pace and growth of the use of energy resources, and by the rates of economic development of the economy. If the growth rate of energy consumption outstrips the rate of GDP growth, then the costs of production in the electric power industry are growing, energy intensity is increasing, and if the ratio is reversed, the energy intensity is reduced.
Thus, to ensure growthenergy efficiency of the economy, it is necessary that the rate of economic development, expressed in GDP growth, outstrip the growth rate of energy consumption. Two contradictory trends in the dynamics of energy consumption should be noted. On the one hand, the growth of power-to-labor ratio as an important factor in increasing its productivity, on the other - the reduction of energy intensity as a result of the current policy in the field of energy efficiency.