Leading activity: concept and main types
Leading activity is the activity of the child,which he carries out within the social development situation. Its fulfillment will determine the appearance and development in the subject of the main psychological neoplasms at a certain stage of development in ontogenesis.
At each stage of mental development, thea special social development situation, which, in turn, contributes to the fact that the corresponding leading activity is manifested. This is a sign of the transition to a higher level of the psyche.
Leading activities are able to identifythe emergence of a new stage of development, acting as a basic criterion for its diagnosis. It manifests itself not immediately, but must undergo formation within the social situation. Moreover, the new activity will not cancel the previous type.
Consequently, the leading activity is the factor that determines the manifestation of the main changes and new formations in the mental level of development at certain stages of ontogeny.
How does this happen? Within her framework, all the child's functions are developed and trained. This, in the long run, will lead to the appearance of qualitative changes. The growing opportunities of the growing man will become a source for manifesting contradictions in the "child-adult" system, which "will result" in the inconsistency of the opportunities that have arisen with the outdated form of relationships with the environment. It is then that a special development crisis begins that facilitates the transition to a higher level of ontogeny.
Let us consider in more detail the course of this process, based on the data of modern research.
In the period of infancy (from birth to one year)the social situation will be determined by the fact that a small child can not do without an adult. He needs it not only to meet physical needs, but also for communication. Therefore, the leading type of activity - direct emotional communication of the child - will form the need and need for communication with people.
At the stage of early childhood (from one year to three), the babygets freedom, which is connected with the fact that he is already able to move independently. In addition, speech is actively developing, and parents are now acting as an intermediary between him and the world around him. It is the adults who become conductors, and the subject-manipulative activity - the leading. Thanks to it, motor and speech skills are developed and improved.
During the pre-school period (from three to sevenyears) the child enters the world of adults with the help of a story-role game. In its framework, he has the opportunity to repeat what he sees in the world around him. That's why there are games in the doctor, the seller, the robbers, the war, the family and so on.
At the younger school age (from seven toeleven years), the leading type of activity changes significantly: the main one becomes educational. All efforts of the child should be aimed at learning the basics of science and becoming a subject of activity. In the social situation of development, a new adult appears - the teacher, who now determines the characteristics of his development, assessing the efforts and abilities of the student.
From adolescence (from elevenup to fifteen years), the main type of activity is communication with peers, which manifests itself in various social spheres (educational, artistic, sports, personal, and so on). It is now it is the determining factor for the mental development of the boy, and the influence of adults "falls back" to the background.
As far as the maturation and socialization of a person, the main thing is labor activity, contributing to the formation of its professionalism.