Maria Stewart - woman and queen
Maria Stewart was one of Scotland's most famous women, and her execution in 1587 was a tragic event in the life of the country.
She was born on December 8, 1542. The future queen was brought up at the French court, from childhood she studied languages and arts. At the age of 14 she was married to the Dauphin of France - Francis II. Shortly after this wedding, the English throne was vacant.The only legitimate heiress was Mary,which took place in a straight line from Henry VII. But the British were against the French-educated "Pigalica", professing Catholicism, and not Protestantism. Therefore, they raised the daughter of Henry VIII to Elizabeth.
However, Maria Stewart did not abandon the aspirationsto rule England. She accepted the coat of arms of England, combining it with the coat of arms of Scotland. By this time Elizabeth had already gained prestige in her country. In 1560, Francis II died, and she had to return to Scotland. After the luxury of the Louvre, the poverty and savagery of the native country made her yearn for her. And Maria allowed herself a flirtation with the nobleman Chatelar.
Maria Stewart, whose biography is complex andromantic, known as a noble and feminine ruler, who lived more with feelings than with political interests. She refused to offer hands to the son of the Spanish monarch, Swedish and Danish kings and suddenly "jumped" in marriage to Lord Darnley. Political interests were sacrificed to love. Darnley was the offspring of the royal houses of the Tudors and Stuarts. But the marriage lasted only six months.
Maria with her supporters expelled from the capitalhusband and led a lover - Count Boswell. She understood that the Pope would not give permission for a divorce, so she tricked Darnley into the capital, where he was killed. After that, the lovers got married, despite the fact that the Scots thought Boswell was Darnley's killer. This set the people against the queen. A rebellion broke out - Maria Stewart was seized, Boswell managed to escape.
Lords concluded the queen in the castle of Lochleven andforced to sign a renunciation of the throne. The king was her son Jacob VI. After some time, the captive queen slipped from the imposed "guardianship" and collected an army, but was defeated. Maria fled to England in the hope of receiving the support of Elizabeth. But in fact, she was in honorable captivity in England, her son abandoned her.
Nineteen years she led a modest and bleaklife in a foreign country, after which she decided on another adventure. Maria supported the Babington plot against Elizabeth. But it was uncovered, and Maria - accused of complicity. Elizabeth (although with orgomnym labor) decided to sign the death sentence to his cousin. Maria Stewart did not ask for pardon. The execution itself, which took place on February 8, 1587, was beautifully described by Stefan Zweig.
To the story of the unfortunate queen they addressed themselves in theirmany writers. She was written about by Schiller ("Maria Stewart"), who presented her to readers not as a great ruler, but as a woman - intelligent, emotional, fatal, whose feelings prevented her from becoming an effective leader. She was strong and single-minded. She was a person, which made her a figure so famous, attractive and worthy of constant attention.