Rio Grande - a river in North America: description, features, photo
Rio Grande - a river, the description of which will bedetailed below, is considered one of the longest in America. It ranks third in this indicator. This watercourse is also a border between the United States of America and Mexico, where it has a length of about 2 thousand km. The starting point can be considered the city of El Paso, the final - the mouth, which is located at the confluence of the river in the Gulf of Mexico.
The length of the river exceeds 3 thousand. km, and the total catchment area is about 300 thousand square meters. km. The longest American river takes its origin from the mountain sources of San Juan, located in El Paso, Colorado. The largest segment of the water flow flows through the San Luis Valley. Further south towards New Mexico continues its journey of the Rio Grande. The river flows into the Gulf of Mexico, which is considered its end point. But, unfortunately, in our time (since 2003) because of the great aridity and strong evaporation, it already literally stops for 150 meters and does not reach its mouth. The main river tributaries are smaller rivers called Rio Conchos, Pecos and Devils.
Features of the watercourse
Translated from Spanish, the nametranslated as "Great River", but, unfortunately, it has long been no longer navigable. Ships go only in the youngest part of the Rio Grande, located near El Paso. All this happened because of the large amount of water intake for irrigation of local fields. Since the 50s of the XX century, the great river is growing smaller. The only sources of water supply to this day remain mountain key springs, groundwater, snow and rain. Rio Grande is a river in North America, on the territory of which once in several years strong hurricanes are formed. It is they who are bringing floods from the Gulf of Mexico into the channel of this water flow. And then an average of 5 years can last "life" of the Rio Grande. But this does not change the fact that every year the drying out areas, due to which mini-lakes are formed, are becoming larger.
A bit of history
Rio Grande is a river with an insanely interesting history. The very moment of its appearance is at least surprising. It is said that more than 750 thousand years ago the lake of Cabeza de Vaca, where it flowed into the Rio Grande, washed away the hills, and a rapid flow of water headed for the Gulf of Mexico, merging with the water currents of Pecos and Rio Conchos, while increasing the length of the future Great River is 3 times. It is rumored that the first settlements in the district were Indian tribes calling themselves "pueblo", and they gave the river such a loud name.
Between 1836 and 1848, the banks of the Rio Grandewitnessed a long war for the freedom of Texas. After the people of the state managed to achieve independence and join the United States, the Americans began to fight the Mexicans for power over the water source.
The military dispute was resolved in 1848. At that time, an agreement was concluded in which the fate of the watercourse was resolved. And from that moment the Rio Grande is a river that has become a border between states. Its banks were surrounded by concrete slabs. And in 1997 it became part of the American natural heritage. During the XIX-XXI centuries, the small fords of the Rio Grande served as places for the transfer of the Mexican population and immigrants to the more successful states of America for the purpose of earnings.
Flora and fauna
Rio Grande - a river whose flora and fauna amazeits diversity. Here there are common and dwarf trout, river prawns, numerous birds (1,5 thousand species) and many animals. All these representatives were on the verge of extinction because of the drought. On the banks of the river you can find rare trees and shrubs, as well as medicinal plants, numbering a little more than 20 thousand species. In addition to the endangered species of trout, in the waters of the Rio Grande, there are about a thousand other specimens of fish and turtles. The most common animals in the delta are alpaca and vicuña, as well as large birds of the ostrich family - nandu.
Rio Grande - a river whose water resources areare used by both countries. However, they also become polluted. Since all industrial waste from factories, oil depots and other industrial establishments merge directly into the riverbed, this leads to terrible consequences and the extinction of the rarest specimens of birds, mammals and fish.