Why does the first transfer turn bad? Driver's advice
One of the most common gearboxes,used on the car, including the VAZ brand, is mechanical. Although on many modern cars already in the design include an automatic gearshift. But they do not refuse to use mechanical boxes.
After all, the mechanical gearbox VAZ, likeany other car brand, is very reliable, unpretentious and requires a minimum of maintenance. It is capable of withstanding significant loads without any harm to itself. Proof of this is the frequent use of this type of gearboxes on cars participating in various competitions.
But no matter how reliable and simple the "mechanic" was, it also causes trouble. One of such malfunctions is poorly included the first and the rear gear. And foreign cars are no exception.
But in order to understand why the first gear turns on badly, you need to first disassemble the design of this type of gearbox.
So, the gearbox layout is quite simple.There is a housing attached to the crankcaseadhesion. In this case there are three shafts - the leading, the driven and the intermediate. The peculiarity of the arrangement of the shafts is that the driving and driven shafts are on the same axis, with one end of which the driven shaft enters the leading shaft. Below them is installed an intermediate shaft.
On each of the shafts there are gears of different diameters and with a different number of teeth, while a part of these gears mounted on the driven shaft can move along it.
Principle of operation
The working diagram of the gearbox is as follows. The drive shaft receives rotation from the driven clutch plate and transfers it to the intermediate clutch. If the box has a neutral speed, the gears of the intermediate shaft are not meshed with the slave, the car is immobilized, as rotation is not transmitted.
When a transmission is switched on, the driver entersin gearing the gear of the driven member with a certain intermediate gear. And the rotation starts to transfer from the driven shaft to the wheels. The car starts to move.
The necessary gears are engaged in gearingcontrol, consisting of three sliders and plugs. Each of the forks is wearing a special groove element. That is, the driver, with the help of the gearshift lever and by means of a special wedge, acts on a certain slider, moving it to one side. At the same time, the fork on the slider pushes the pinion, and it comes into engagement. The change in the speed of the gear shift is affected by the engagement of gears of different size and number of gears.
In order not to return the slider with the plugin the starting position, the box control box is equipped with locks. The latter - spring-loaded balls that enter the grooves on the sliders. That is, on the slider there are in certain places gutters.When you move to the desired position ballThe retainer jumps into the groove, excluding the return of the slider. When switching the speed, the driver must pressurize the slider, exceeding the force of the lock spring, so that the ball jumps out.
This is a simplified description of the design and operation of the mechanical transmission.Usually, according to this scheme, the VAZ transmission of classic models works. On some cars, the circuit may be somewhat different, but the essence of the work is the same - the slider with the fork affects the gear.
In some cars in the CAT, the slider, responsible forthe inclusion of the first speed, also ensures the inclusion of the rear. They have it that the first and the back gear are badly turned on. Of course, one can not fail to pay attention to this breakdown.
At the other checkpoints, the first speed and the rear gear are separated and different sliders meet for their inclusion. In such auto problems with the inclusion of the first speed may not affect the inclusion of the rear.
Variants why the first gear is switched onbad - a few. It also depends on how the reason manifests itself - it's impossible to turn it on, everything is accompanied by a metal screech on the side of the box, or the speed turns on, but immediately turns off on its own.
Bad inclusion due to the slider
First, let's look at why the first gear turns bad and the problem with the transmission is the fault.
Often the problem with the inclusion of speed lies in thelock and slide. The appearance of a hangnail near the groove for the latch on the slide can easily prevent the ball retainer from entering the bore. When the slider moves, the latch rests against this barb and can not overcome it without significant effort on the part of the driver. In this case, the gears are very close, but do not enter into the gear, and the teeth of one gear are beating against the other.In the future, such a run-out can lead to flaring of the teeth, and the impossibility of switching on will already be due to the fact that because of this rolling the teeth can no longer go into engagement.
If it turns on, but immediately turns off, thenit is possible to stick the latch in the squeezed position, so it no longer performs its work. It is also possible to break the spring, which presses the ball retainer. Without the force of the spring, it can not hold the slider in the desired position.
When making a significant effort, the power plug may bend during the transfer.If this happens, the gears will no longer fully engage, and the slider itself will not reach the stop, which will prevent the lock from entering the groove.
The cause of poor inclusion may be an incorrect installation of the handle of the gearshift knob. In this case, the link does not bring the gear for full engagement.
Troubleshooting the Transmission
Troubleshooting with gearboxis made by removing it from the car, disassembling, defecting the parts, if it is found that some of them are badly worn. Particular attention should be paid to the condition of the sliders and retainers. If there are hangnails on the sliders, they need to be removed with the help of a file. Also it is necessary to check up a condition of springs and balls of a clamp. The springs must be intact, and the retainer can move without problems in its seat. If necessary, worn or damaged parts must be replaced.
Also, carefully inspect the plugs for bending. Even a slight bend can affect the ease of turning on the gear.
After the assembly, the shift adjustment must also be performed. To be precise, the position of the wings is set.
Malfunction of coupling
Often the reason why the first gear is turned on badly is not the box itself, but the clutch.
The modern transmission is equipped with synchronizers, which equalize the speed of rotation of the gears, ensuring ease of entry into gearing.
However, the first speed synchronizer is not equipped. If the clutch "leads", then when the pedal is fully compressed, the torque transmission from the motor to the gearbox is not completely stopped.
Because of this, there is a difference in rotation of the shafts and gears of the first gear, in particular.In this case, it is difficult to put them into engagement, and all attempts to do so are accompanied by a strong metallic gnash.
It is possible that the rear speed is also notwill turn on, or turn on inconveniently. In this case, if you could still turn on the gear, the car starts to move even with the clutch pedal fully depressed. An additional sign of the problems with the clutch is that the car jerks when changing gears, especially if some of them are not equipped with synchronizers.
How to check the clutch?
Indicate the malfunction of the clutch, not of the boxcan help auto engine. If, with the engine stopped, all speeds are turned on easily, there is no problem, and when the engine is wound up, the first and rear gear are badly turned on, or it can not be turned on at all - you should pay attention to the clutch.
The reason that the clutch "leads" is often the wrong adjustment.Releaser is too far away fromsqueeze diaphragm or cams. When the pedal is squeezed, this bearing is not able to fully squeeze the drive from the slave, and the torque continues to be transmitted. Affect the work of the clutch and its considerable wear, because of which it and the beginning of the "lead".
Clutch adjustment and repair
The first thing to do in case of problems with the clutch, then this is to make adjustments.On different cars it is produced in different ways, but all operations are reduced to one - installation of the release bearing at the required distance from the diaphragm or cams.
If the adjustment did not help, thendismantle the clutch with the car, carry out the defect and replace the worn out items. Sometimes, over time, all component parts of the system wear out. In this case, a complete replacement of the clutch - the drive and driven discs, the release bearing - is made.
The above are the main reasons for what is on the carit is difficult to switch gears. Although, as indicated in the beginning, if the mechanical transmission is very reliable, the more likely the fault of a bad inclusion is the grip, and not the box itself.